Promoter: Galician Granite Technical Centre Foundation (FCTGG in Spanish).

Technical management: Fernando López González-Mesones (doctor in mining engineering, Madrid Polytechnic University [UPM]).

Technical team: Natalia Núñez Duro (FCTGG architect), Eva Portas Fernández (FCTGG technical architect) y Javier De la Puente Crespo (industrial engineer, Vigo University and Serafín Ocaña Foundation).




1. Stone for internal paving construction
1.1. Brief historic overview
1.2. Natural stone designation
1.3. Natural stone varieties
1.4. Surface finishes for interiors
1.5. Advantages of stone for pavement construction
1.6. Formats used in interior flooring
1.6.1. Slabs for floors
1.6.2. Modular tiles for floors
1.6.3. Trims, skirting boards, treads and risers

2. Natural stone controls
2.1. CE marking
2.2. Product requirements and control checks
2.2.1. Size requirements
2.2.2. Surface finish
2.2.3. Flexural strength
2.2.4. Adherence resistance
2.2.5. Water absorption at atmospheric pressure
2.2.6. Water absorption by capillarity
2.2.7. Erosion resistance
2.2.8. Skid resistance
2.2.9. Bulk density and open porosity determination
2.2.10. Resistance to ageing by thermal shock
2.2.11. Sensitivity to changes in appearance produced by thermal cycles
2.2.12. Resistance to the impact of hard objects
2.2.13. Petrographic denomination
2.2.14. Fire performance
2.2.15. Appearance

3. The internal paving project
3.1. Structural base
3.1.1. Concrete bed
3.1.2. Concrete slab
3.2. Levelling or regularization layer
3.3. Fixing layer
3.3.1. Mortar cement
3.3.2. Adhesives
3.4. Other design tools
3.4.1. Intermediate layers in heating systems by radiant floor
3.4.2. Intermediate layers without support function
3.5. Choosing the stone
3.6. Joints
3.6.1. Size and layout
3.6.2. Jointing materials

4. Calculation of paving system
4.1. Slab thickness calculation
4.2. Adherence and regularization layer
4.3. Structural base thickness

5. Pavement implementation
5.1. Storage at worksite
5.2. Layout and signaling
5.3. Execution
5.3.1. Structural base
5.3.2. Levelling layer
5.3.3. Adherence layer
5.3.4. Placing the slabs
5.3.5. Joints
5.4. Construction designs

6. Quality control
6.1. Norms
6.1.1. Technical Building Code (CTE)
6.1.2. Products subject to the Construction Products Directive (CPD)
6.2. Controls prior to delivery of stone
6.3. Controls at work site upon the reception of the stone
6.3.1. Control sampling
6.4. Pavement layout controls

7. Damages and repairs
7.1. Direct causes
7.1.1. Physical
7.1.2. Mechanical
7.1.3. Chemical

8. Maintenance, cleaning and conservation
8.1. Maintenance and conservation
8.2. Cleaning

9. Drawing up budgets



The use of stone for pavement construction has been a common practice of man throughout time with satisfactory results. This is due to the countless advantages this material offers in terms of design and construction, as well as the requirements that must be met to optimize its use. This e-book explains the requirements demanded from the materials that make up the pavement system as a whole, the section calculation tools, the requirements for receipt acceptance at worksite, as well as the quality controls on the finished work units. Likewise, it offers the reader a classification of the most common damages affecting the stone flooring and the repairs that have to be done to correct them. This way, the opportunity of preventing the damages on stone flooring is offered by means of the prior analysis of the interacting actions.


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