Promoter: Galician Granite Technical Centre Foundation (FCTGG in Spanish).

Technical management: Fernando López González-Mesones (doctor in mining engineering, Madrid Polytechnic University [UPM]).

Technical team: Natalia Núñez Duro (FCTGG architect), Eva Portas Fernández (FCTGG technical architect) y Javier De la Puente Crespo (industrial engineer, Vigo University and Serafín Ocaña Foundation).




CHAPTER 1. Stone for facade construction
1.1. Brief historic overview
1.2. Natural stone designation
1.3. Natural stone varieties
1.4. Surface finishes
1.5. Stone advantages for facade construction
1.6. Formats used in facade
1.6.1. Slabs for cladding
1.6.2. Small slabs

CHAPTER 2. Natural stone controls
2.1. CE marking
2.2. Control requirements
2.2.1. Size requirements
2.2.2. Flexural strength
2.2.3. Anchor strength
2.2.4. Water absorption at atmospheric pressure
2.2.5. Coefficient of water absorption by capillarity
2.2.6. Frost resistance
2.2.7. Resistance to ageing by thermal shock
2.2.8. Sensitivity to changes in appearance produced by thermal cycles
2.2.9. Marble resistance to heat and moisture cycles
2.2.10. Resistance to the impact of hard objects
2.2.11. Bulk density and open porosity determination
2.2.12. Petrographic denomination
2.2.13. Fire performance
2.2.14. Soluble salt crystallisation
2.2.15. Appearance

CHAPTER 3. Regulations
3.1. Building Management Law (LOE)
3.2. Spanish Technical Building Code (CTE)
3.3. EOTA’s guideline draft
3.4. Technical Approval Certificate (DIT)
3.5. Fitness for Use Document (DAU)
3.6. Other regulations

CHAPTER 4. The facade project
4.1. Stone selection
4.2. Claddings without air space
4.2.1. Claddings with small slabs fixed with cement mortar or adhesive agents
4.2.2. Claddings fixed with mortar/adhesive and holding or security rod
4.2.3. Claddings with mechanical fixing and backfilling with bastard mortar
4.3. Claddings with mechanical fixing: ventilated facade
4.3.1. Support
4.3.2. Insulation
4.3.3. Air space
4.3.4. Anchors
4.3.5. Joints
4.4. Watertightness
4.4.1. Watertightness in ventilated facade
4.4.2. Impermeability degree
4.5. Stability with fire
4.6. Acoustic conditions
4.6.1. Soundproofing of mixed elements
4.6.2. Effect of the facade shape in soundproofing to airborne noise
4.6.3. Windows and their requirements in the architectural project

CHAPTER 5. Facade calculation
5.1. Actions on cladding
5.1.1. Own weight
5.1.2. Wind pressure determination
5.1.3. Seismic actions determination
5.2. Load distribution in the anchors for their selection
5.2.1. Load distribution in horizontal joint
5.2.2. Load distribution in vertical joint
5.3. Slab thickness calculation
5.3.1. Flexural stresses on the slab
5.3.2. Cutting stresses on the slab in the anchor point
5.3.3. Thickness required to support the impact actions

CHAPTER 6. Facade execution
6.1. Setting-up general criteria
6.2. Storage at worksite
6.3. Facades with natural stone claddings without air space
6.3.1. Claddings fixed with adhesives
6.3.2. Claddings fixed with mortar and holding rods
6.3.3. Claddings with mechanical fixing and backfilling
6.4. Ventilated facade
6.4.1. Setting out
6.4.2. Square laying
6.4.3. Metal section laying
6.4.4. Thermal insulation laying
6.4.5. Air space laying
6.4.6. Fixing of the anchor system to the support
6.4.7. Execution of singular points

CHAPTER 7. Quality control
7.1. Norms
7.1.1. CTE
7.1.2. Products subject to the Construction Products Directive (CPD)
7.2. Controls prior to delivery of stone
7.3. Receipt controls at worksite
7.3.1. Control sampling
7.4. Execution controls

CHAPTER 8. Maintenance, cleaning and conservation
8.1. Maintenance and storage guidelines
8.2. Guidelines and typology of cleaning methods

CHAPTER 9. Drawing up budgets



Building facade cladding makes up constructive systems in which natural stone, as well as providing its exceptional aesthetic value, gives many of its features. This e-book explains the regulations about natural stone in facade projects, calculation and execution, and quality controls. Likewise, the main methods and conditions for its maintenance, cleaning and conservation are defined.


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